Dr Lee completed his PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2014 at Curtin University. His PhD project developed algorithms that utilise signal-processing and machine learning to extract the neural signal-of-interest from multi-channel EEG recordings.

After finishing his PhD, he joined the Bionics Institute DBS team for the first time as a research engineer. In this role, he developed a real-time closed-loop DBS software for research purposes. He demonstrated the signal-of-interest could be extracted, controlled, and visualised in real-time using the in-house instruments. In 2019, he joined Monash University’s eResearch Centre as a research software engineer to work on the Monash Net-Zero Transactive Energy Market (TEM) project. He worked with industry partners and researchers to demonstrate the feasibility of managing a microgrid through decentralised coordination between multiple building agents.

After a year, he returned to the DBS team at the Bionics Institute as an R&D engineer. Building on his previous work, he is currently working closely with the clinicians and engineers in developing algorithms for the next generation DBS device.



E: [email protected]

Google Scholar: Google Scholar


Research Projects

Improved positioning for DBS (ADEPT device)

Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation Device (ASTUTE system)



Selected Publications

  1. W. L. Lee, T. Tan, T. Falkmer, Y. H. Leung, “Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference”, Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 13, issue 6, pp. 066010, Dec. 2016.
  2. W.L Lee, N. C. Sinclair, M. Jones, J. L. Tan, E. L. Proud, R. Peppard, H. J. Dermott and T. Perera, “Objective evaluation of bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease using an inexpensive marker-less motion tracking system”, Physiological Measurement, vol. 40, issue 1, Feb 2019.
  3. D. Azuatalam, W. L. Lee, F. de Nijs, & A. Liebman, “Reinforcement learning for whole-building HVAC control and demand response”, Energy and AI, vol. 2, no. 100020, 100020, 2020.
  4. N. C. Sinclair, H. J. McDermott, W. L. Lee, S. S. Xu, N. Acevedo, A. Begg, T. Perera, W. Thevathasan and K. J. Bulluss, “Electrically evoked and spontaneous neural activity in the subthalamic nucleus under general anaesthesia”, Journal of Neurosurgery, 2021.
  5. Y. H. Lim, H. C. Lee, T. Falkmer, G. T. Allison, T. Tan, W. L. Lee and S. L. Morris, “Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder”, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 49, pp. 4731-4739, 2019.